sustainability

What Is Biodynamic Gardening? Understanding the Basics + Advice from Our Team for Your Garden

What Is Biodynamic Gardening? Understanding the Basics + Advice from Our Team for Your Garden
What Is Biodynamic Gardening? Understanding the Basics + Advice from Our Team for Your Garden

With insight from our team of biodynamics enthusiasts: Thomas Leonard, Farm Operations Manager; Kate Renner, Farm Operations Assistant Manager; and Will Bratton, Procurement Manager

Here at Gaia Herbs, we love to talk about our farm, a magical 350-acre plot of land, nestled in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Western North Carolina, with rich alluvial soil and amazing biodiversity. After all, it’s part of what sets us apart from other supplement companies—we’re different not only in that we grow many of the herbs we use in our products, but also because of how we grow them.

You’ll often hear us share that our farm is Certified Organic through Oregon Tilth and that we practice regenerative agriculture, which focuses on reversing climate change by rebuilding and restoring soil. But you may not know that we also embrace the principles of biodynamic farming.

What exactly is biodynamic farming or biodynamic gardening? And how can you take a biodynamic approach in your home garden? Keep reading for the answers, with wisdom from our resident biodynamics experts: our farm team leaders, Thomas Leonard and Kate Renner, and our Procurement Manager, Will Bratton.

What Is Biodynamic Gardening?

The Biodynamic Association broadly defines biodynamics as “a holistic, ecological, and ethical approach to farming, gardening, food, and nutrition.” It is rooted in the work of Rudolf Steiner, who was a philosopher and architect, amongst other claims to fame.

In 1924, he planted the seed of the biodynamics movement at a series of agriculture lectures in what is now Poland, during which he spelled out this sustainable approach to farming. Over the last nearly century, biodynamics has grown and evolved, spreading around the globe with a number of people adding to Steiner’s tradition.

But the principles remain the same. There are many, which can be found at biodynamics.com. For the purposes of this article, we’ll focus on the big three:

  1. The biodynamic farm or garden is one living organism. It’s made up of interdependent elements—plants, soil, people, its spirit… and the list goes on—that must be supported in a holistic way to manage its overall health. These elements should work together in harmony, and it’s the farmer’s/gardener’s job to make that happen. In other words, biodynamic farming and gardening are built on the idea that what you do in one area, to one element of your space, affects the whole system. As the famous saying goes, “When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe.”
  2. Biodynamic preparations strengthen compost and enhance soil and plant health. What are “preparations”? That’s biodynamics lingo for natural inputs that increase soil fertility and improve soil health—the approach doesn’t allow for the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Biodynamics relies heavily on compost, and Steiner developed six preparations to enliven it; compost is used to help attune the soil to the whole organism and to restore climate balance. Steiner also developed three liquid spray preparations to use around the farm and garden. His original recipes are labeled biodynamic preparations #500-508 and are made with both herbs and manure through very detailed, often complex, processes, with the ultimate goal being that biodynamic farms don't rely on external amendments rather generate them from the land. That said, today you can buy already prepared preparations; keep reading for more details.
  3. Biodynamics works in rhythm with the Earth and the cosmos. This is one principle that really differentiates biodynamics from other approaches. Biodynamics considers the rhythms and cycles of the Earth, sun, moon, stars, and planets, which it holds can influence the growth and development of both plants and animals. Biodynamic farmers and gardeners use a special biodynamic calendar, a detailed astronomical guide about when to complete tasks from planting to using preparations to harvesting. Lunar gardening also considers the phases of the moon, but not necessarily the moon’s perigee and apogee (its distance from us) and the influence of the sun and the greater cosmos.

If some of these principles sound familiar, they should. Biodynamic farming is the origin of organic agriculture. Indeed, both organic and regenerative farming came out of biodynamics, but these movements exclude their predecessor’s astrological practices.

Biodynamic Agriculture in Action on the Gaia Farm

The biodynamic approach is right in line with the Gaia Herbs ethos, from its holistic perspective to its directive to grow organically and sustainably—and beyond: Biodynamics also encourages social and economic welfare, which we promote through our Gaia Roots program and efforts to increase herbal accessibility.

On the Gaia Farm, we embrace biodynamics in a couple of ways. First, we incorporate the biodynamic calendar into our growing calendar. This year, Thomas and Kate developed their most comprehensive celestial schedule yet. “Using the biodynamic calendar encourages a very strategic and mindful approach to what we’re doing on the farm,” Kate shares.

For 2021, she has been paying special attention to, and been especially fascinated by, days that are favorable for a plant’s leaf and flower formation versus its root formation, so we can achieve the results we want from our herbs. And Thomas has been acutely aware this season of the calendar’s blackout days—when the cosmos say it’s not a good time for activities such as seeding and harvesting. In fact, he noticed that two late frosts on the farm this spring serendipitously aligned with blackout dates.

Though planting by the cosmos may not be seen as scientific, it makes good sense to Thomas. “Farming is cyclical,” he says, “and not just in seasons. There are smaller cycles like night and day that we observe on the farm. I think the moon in particular has a huge influence on life and on our planet. If it's strong enough to move oceans, surely it has some effect on plants and people.”

Our farm team firmly believes in composting and using compost on the farm, and we have also been embracing biodynamics through biodynamic preparations. We’ve even been making some of our own compost that incorporates the herbs we grow, allowing Kate and Thomas to develop a deeper understanding of and connection to these plants.

For example, we recently started the process for preparation #504, for which you bury Nettle leaf in a clay pot in the ground for one year (pictured here). Over time, it breaks down into a nutrient-rich compost additive. And we have plans to make preparation #507, a Valerian compost tea, and preparation #508, a Horsetail compost tea, in the coming months.

Biodynamics in Your Garden: Where to Start

As has already been mentioned, biodynamics is as much for the home garden as the farm. Want to take a biodynamic approach in your space but aren’t sure where to start? Will Bratton, our Procurement Manager and founder of the International Biodynamic Guild, has some great advice.

Do your research. It’s always a good idea to do some research and reading about a gardening approach before you dig in. As a biodynamics enthusiast, Will is a big fan of Steiner’s written works, but he doesn’t advise starting with these difficult texts. Instead, he encourages browsing literature on the websites of the Biodynamic Association, Demeter USA (the only American certifier for biodynamic farms and products), Josephine Porter Institute, and others, as well as recommends The Biodynamic Year by Maria Thun.

Get your hands on a biodynamic calendar. Gardening to the biodynamic calendar is perhaps the simplest way to begin. There are many different calendars available for purchase. Will recommends finding one from the author mentioned above, and notes that Maria Thun’s calendars include informative written material that’s a perfect overview of biodynamics and is helpful for getting started.

Commence composting. Compost is critical in the biodynamic garden. Though biodynamics uses specific compost preparations, the steps for creating compost are universal. Begin in whatever capacity you can—whether a small countertop composter or a big pile in your yard. By composting your kitchen scraps, you’ll be taking steps to keep waste out of the landfill and rebuild your soil and be well on your way to gardening biodynamically.

Purchase preparations. If you’re ready to take your biodynamic garden to the next level, you can purchase finished preparations from the Josephine Porter Institute. When you’re working preparations into your home compost and are gardening with the cycles of the cosmos, you’ve got the fundamentals of biodynamics down.

Will notes that, especially in the wine and dairy industries, products grown biodynamically tend to outperform their organic and regenerative peers in tests of flavor and quality. Once your biodynamic garden is established, you’re likely to have the tastiest, healthiest herbs, veggies, and fruits on your block!

Share Your Success!

We hope you’ll share stories and pictures from your gardens with us this spring, summer, and fall on Instagram and Facebook. We’d love to know what you’re growing and if a biodynamic approach is working for you!

REFERENCES:

  • 1. Gustavo F. Gonzales, "Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands", Journal List Evid Based Complement Alternat Med v.2012; 2012 PMC3184420. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3184420/
  • 2. Luis G Valerio Jr, Gustavo F Gonzales, "Toxicological aspects of the South American herbs cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) and Maca (Lepidium meyenii) : a critical synopsis", Toxicol Rev . 2005;24(1):11-35. doi: 10.2165/00139709-200524010-00002. PMID: 16042502. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16042502/
  • 3. H. O. Meissner,1 P. Mrozikiewicz,2 T. Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska,3 A. Mscisz,2 B. Kedzia,2 A. Lowicka,2 H. Reich-Bilinska,4 W. Kapczynski,5 and I. Barchia6, "Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (I) Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic Study on Maca using Clinical Laboratory Model on Ovariectomized Rats", Journal List Int J Biomed Sci v.2(3); 2006 Sep PMC3614604. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3614604/
  • 4. Eva Fries 1, Lucia Dettenborn, Clemens Kirschbaum, "The cortisol awakening response (CAR): facts and future directions", Int J Psychophysiol. 2009 Apr;72(1):67-73. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.03.014.Epub 2008 Sep 30.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18854200/
  • 5. Nicolas C. Nicolaides 1, Alexandros N. Vgontzas 2, Ilia Kritikou 3, George Chrousos 4 Kenneth R Feingold 1, Bradley Anawalt 2, Alison Boyce 3, George Chrousos 4, Wouter W de Herder 5, Ketan Dhatariya 6, Kathleen Dungan 7, Jerome M Hershman 8, Johannes Hofland 9, Sanjay Kalra 10, Gregory Kaltsas 11, Christian Koch 12, Peter Kopp 13, Márta Korbonits 14, Christopher S Kovacs 15, Wendy Kuohung 16, Blandine Laferrère 17, Miles Levy 18, Elizabeth A McGee 19, Robert McLachlan 20, John E Morley 21, Maria New 22, Jonathan Purnell 23, Rakesh Sahay 24, Frederick Singer 25, Mark A Sperling 26, Constantine A Stratakis 27, Dace L Trence 28, Don P Wilson 29 , editors., "HPA Axis and Sleep", PMID: 25905298 Bookshelf ID: NBK279071. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25905298/
  • 6. José Manuel Lozano Sánchez', Zoraida Axtle Serranol*, Julio Avilés Durán, Héctor Salvador Godoy Morales, Paola Berenice Merchand Álvarez, Ricardo Mera Mejía? Luis Felipe Montaño Estrada and Erika Patricia Rendón Huerta, "Peruvian Maca and Possible Impact on Fertility", Journal of Nutritional Health & Food Engineering. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jose-Manuel-Lozano-Sanchez/publication/317569911_Peruvian_Maca_and_Possible_Impact_on_Fertility/links/59494b03aca272a30c6cae11/Peruvian-Maca-and-Possible-Impact-on-Fertility.pdf
  • 7. A López-Fando 1, M P Gómez-Serranillos, I Iglesias, O Lock, U P Upamayta, M E Carretero, "Lepidium peruvianum chacon restores homeostasis impaired by restraint stress", Phytother Res . 2004 Jun;18(6):471-4. doi: 10.1002/ptr.1455.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15287072/
  • 8. Gustavo F. Gonzales *, "Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands", Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 193496. Published online 2011 Oct 2. doi: 10.1155/2012/193496. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3184420/
  • 9. José Manuel Lozano Sánchez', Zoraida Axtle Serranol*, Julio Avilés Durán, Héctor Salvador Godoy Morales, Paola Berenice Merchand Álvarez, Ricardo Mera Mejía? Luis Felipe Montaño Estrada and Erika Patricia Rendón Huerta, "Peruvian Maca and Possible Impact on Fertility", Journal of Nutritional Health & Food Engineering. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jose-Manuel-Lozano-Sanchez/publication/317569911_Peruvian_Maca_and_Possible_Impact_on_Fertility/links/59494b03aca272a30c6cae11/Peruvian-Maca-and-Possible-Impact-on-Fertility.pdf
  • 10. Maria Rosales-Hartshorn*, "Maca: Botanical Medicine from the Andes", Volume 1 : Issue 2 Article Ref. #: 1000AFTNSOJ1e001. https://www.openventio.org/Volume1-Issue2/Maca-Botanical-Medicine-from-the-Andes-AFTNSOJ-1-e001.pdf
  • 11. Natália da Silva Leitão Peres 1, Letícia Cabrera Parra Bortoluzzi, Leila Larisa Medeiros Marques, Maysa Formigoni, Renata Hernandez Barros Fuchs, Adriana Aparecida Droval, Flávia Aparecida Reitz Cardoso, "Medicinal effects of Peruvian maca (Lepidium meyenii): a review", Food Funct. 2020 Jan 29;11(1):83-92. doi: 10.1039/c9fo02732g.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31951246/
  • 12. Office of Communications, "How common is infertility?", Home- Health- A to Z List- Infertility and Fertility- About- How common is infertility?. https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/infertility/conditioninfo/common#f1
  • 13. ASRM, American Society for Reproductive Medicine., "In approximately 40 percent of infertile couples, the male partner is either the sole cause or a contributing cause of infertility", Home Infographic Gallery. https://www.reproductivefacts.org/resources/infographic-gallery/images/in-approximately-40-percent-of-infertile-couples-the-male-partner-is-either-the-sole-cause-or-a-contributing-cause-of-infertility/
  • 14. G F Gonzales 1, A Cordova, C Gonzales, A Chung, K Vega, A Villena, "Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men", Asian J Androl. 2001 Dec;3(4):301-3.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11753476/
  • 15. José Manuel Lozano Sánchez', Zoraida Axtle Serranol*, Julio Avilés Durán, Héctor Salvador Godoy Morales, Paola Berenice Merchand Álvarez, Ricardo Mera Mejía? Luis Felipe Montaño Estrada and Erika Patricia Rendón Huerta, "Peruvian Maca and Possible Impact on Fertility", DOI:10.15406/jnhfe.2017.06.00217. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317569911_Peruvian_Maca_and_Possible_Impact_on_Fertility
  • 16. Daniel Nedresky; Gurdeep Singh., "Physiology, Luteinizing Hormone", Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539692/
  • 17. G F Gonzales 1, A Cordova, C Gonzales, A Chung, K Vega, A Villena, "Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men", Asian J Androl. 2001 Dec;3(4):301-3.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11753476/
  • 18. G F Gonzales, M Gasco, A Córdova, A Chung, J Rubio and L Villegas, "Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenesis in male rats acutely exposed to high altitude (4340 m)", Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, and Departamento de Ciencias Biolo´gicas y Fisiolo´gicas Facultad de Ciencas y Filosofı´a, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, PO Box 1843, Lima, Peru (Requests for offprints should be addressed to G F Gonzales, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, PO Box 1843, Lima, Peru; Email: iiad@upch.edu.pe). http://eplant.njau.edu.cn/maca/publication/Effect%20of%20Lepidium%20meyenii%20(Maca)%20on%20spermatogenesis%20in%20male%20rats%20acutely%20exposed%20to%20high%20altitude%20(4340%20m).pdf
  • 19. A López-Fando, M P Gómez-Serranillos, I Iglesias, O Lock, U P Upamayta, M E Carretero, "Lepidium peruvianum chacon restores homeostasis impaired by restraint stress", Phytother Res . 2004 Jun;18(6):471-4. doi: 10.1002/ptr.1455.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15287072/
  • 20. G. F. Gonzales,A. Córdova,K. Vega,A. Chung,A. Villena,C. Góñez,S. Castillo, "Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men", Journal of Andrology. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1439-0272.2002.00519.x
  • 21. Byung-Cheul Shin, Myeong Soo Lee, Eun Jin Yang, Hyun-Suk Lim, Edzard Ernst, "Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review", BMC Complement Altern Med . 2010 Aug 6;10:44. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-44.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20691074/
  • 22. José Manuel Lozano Sánchez, Zoraida Axtle, Julio Aviles, Héctor Salvador Godoy Morales, Paola Berenice Merchand Álvarez, Ricardo Mera Mejía, Luis Felipe Montaño Estrada, Erika Patricia Rendón Huerta, "Peruvian Maca and Possible Impact on Fertility", Journal of Nutritional Health & Food Engineering. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317569911_Peruvian_Maca_and_Possible_Impact_on_Fertility
  • 23. Hongkang Zhu, Wenqian Xu, Ning Wang, Wenhao Jiang, Yuliang Cheng, Yahui Guo, Weirong Yao, Bin Hu, Peng Du and He Qian, "Anti-fatigue effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Maca) on preventing mitochondria-mediated muscle damage and oxidative stress in vivo and vitro†", Journal of Food & Function. https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2021/fo/d1fo00383f/unauth
  • 24. Mark Stone, Alvin Ibarra, Marc Roller, Andrea Zangara, Emma Stevenson, "A pilot investigation into the effect of maca supplementation on physical activity and sexual desire in sportsmen", J Ethnopharmacol . 2009 Dec 10;126(3):574-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.012. Epub 2009 Sep 23.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19781622/
  • 25. Gustavo F Gonzales, Sara Miranda, Jessica Nieto, Gilma Fernández, Sandra Yucra, Julio Rubio, Pedro Yi & Manuel Gasco, "Red maca (Lepidium meyenii) reduced prostate size in rats", Reprod Biol Endocrinol 3, 5 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-3-5. https://rbej.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1477-7827-3-5
  • 26. C Gonzales, J Leiva-Revilla, J Rubio, M Gasco, G F Gonzales, "Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia", Andrologia . 2012 May;44 Suppl 1:362-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2011.01190.x. Epub 2011 Jul 18.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21762188/
  • 27. G. F. Gonzales,A. Córdova,K. Vega,A. Chung,A. Villena,C. Góñez,S. Castillo, "Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men", Journal of Andrology. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1046/j.1439-0272.2002.00519.x
  • 28. Y Ohta, N Kawate, T Inaba, H Morii, K Takahashi, H Tamada, "Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances testicular gene expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rats", Andrologia . 2017 Dec;49(10). doi: 10.1111/and.12792. Epub 2017 Mar 6.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28261840/
  • 29. Ángel Rodríguez-Huamán, Sandra Casimiro-Gonzales, Jorge Antonio Chávez-Pérez, Carla Gonzales-Arimborgo, Richard Cisneros-Fernández, Luis Ángel Aguilar-Mendoza, Gustavo F Gonzales, "Antioxidant and neuroprotector effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) methanol leaf extract against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells", Toxicol Mech Methods . 2017 May;27(4):279-285. doi: 10.1080/15376516.2016.1275908. Epub 2017 Jan 8.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28007001/
  • 30. Bárbara Teixeira, António Marques, Cristina Ramos, Maria Carmo Serrano, Olívia Matos, Nuno R Neng, José Nogueira, Jorge M. A. Saraiva, Maria Leonor Nunes, "Chemical composition and bioactivity of different oregano (Origanum vulgare) extracts and essential oil", Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 93(11) DOI:10.1002/jsfa.6089. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236104725_Chemical_composition_and_bioactivity_of_different_oregano_Origanum_vulgare_extracts_and_essential_oil
  • 31. Wesam Kooti, Zahra Hasanzadeh-Noohi, Naim Sharafi-Ahvazi, Majid Asadi-Samani, Damoon Ashtary-Larky, "Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic uses of black seed (Nigella sativa)", Chin J Nat Med . 2016 Oct;14(10):732-745. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(16)30088-7. Epub 2016 Oct 31.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28236403/
  • 32. Łukasz Łuczaj & Wojciech M Szymański, "Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review.", Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine volume 3, Article number: 17 (2007). https://ethnobiomed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-4269-3-17
  • 33. IKHLAS A. KHAN, EHAB A. ABOURASHED, "Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics.", John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. https://naturalingredient.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/leungs-encyclopedia-of-common-natural-ingredients-3rd-edition.pdf
  • 34. Adom MB, Taher M, Mutalabisin MF, Amri MS, Abdul Kudos MB, Wan Sulaiman MWA, Sengupta P, Susanti D, "Chemical constituents and medical benefits of Plantago major.", Biomedecine & Pharmacotherapie, 10 Oct 2017, 96:348-360 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.09.152 PMID: 29028587. https://europepmc.org/article/med/29028587#similar-articles
  • 35. ZOT Organic, "What is Licorice?", General Info. https://zotorganic.com/information/licorice/#:~:text=The%20plant%20is%20prized%20for,shrub%2C%20is%20officially%20a%20weed.
  • 36. Dalia Akramiene, Anatolijus Kondrotas, Janina Didziapetriene, Egidijus Kevelaitis, "Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system", Medicina (Kaunas) . 2007;43(8):597-606.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17895634/
  • 37. R C Rosen, "Prevalence and risk factors of sexual dysfunction in men and women", Curr Psychiatry Rep . 2000 Jun;2(3):189-95. doi: 10.1007/s11920-996-0006-2.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11122954/
  • 38. Natália da Silva Leitão Peres, Letícia Cabrera Parra Bortoluzzi, Leila Larisa Medeiros Marques, Maysa Formigoni, Renata Hernandez Barros Fuchs, Adriana Aparecida Droval, Flávia Aparecida Reitz Cardoso, "Medicinal effects of Peruvian maca (Lepidium meyenii): a review", Food Funct . 2020 Jan 29;11(1):83-92. doi: 10.1039/c9fo02732g.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31951246/
  • 39. Nicole A Brooks, Gisela Wilcox, Karen Z Walker, John F Ashton, Marc B Cox, Lily Stojanovska, "Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content", Menopause . 2008 Nov-Dec;15(6):1157-62. doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e3181732953.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18784609/
  • 40. Maria Rosales-Hartshorn*, "Maca: Botanical Medicine from the Andes", Adv Food Technol Nutr Sci Open J. 2015; 1(2): e1-e6. doi: 10.17140/AFTNSOJ-1-e001. https://www.openventio.org/Volume1-Issue2/Maca-Botanical-Medicine-from-the-Andes-AFTNSOJ-1-e001.pdf
  • 41. Sánchez JML, Serrano ZA, Durán JA, Morales HSG, Álvarez PBM (2017), "Peruvian Maca and Possible Impact on Fertility", J Nutr Health Food Eng 6(5): 00217. DOI: 10.15406/jnhfe.2017.06.00217. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jose-Manuel-Lozano-Sanchez/publication/317569911_Peruvian_Maca_and_Possible_Impact_on_Fertility/links/59494b03aca272a30c6cae11/Peruvian-Maca-and-Possible-Impact-on-Fertility.pdf
  • 42. Leila Mazaheri Nia, Mina Iravani, Parvin Abedi, Bahman Cheraghian, "Effect of Zinc on Testosterone Levels and Sexual Function of Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial", J Sex Marital Ther . 2021;47(8):804-813. doi: 10.1080/0092623X.2021.1957732. Epub 2021 Jul 27.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34311679/
  • 43. G. F. Gonzales,A. Córdova,K. Vega,A. Chung,A. Villena,C. Góñez,S. Castillo, "Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men", Journal of Andrology. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1439-0272.2002.00519.x
  • 44. Byung-Cheul Shin 1, Myeong Soo Lee, Eun Jin Yang, Hyun-Suk Lim, Edzard Ernst, "Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review", BMC Complement Altern Med . 2010 Aug 6;10:44. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-44.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20691074/
  • 45. Ghanbarali Raeis Jalali, Jamshid Roozbeh, Azam Mohammadzadeh, Maryam Sharifian, Mohammad Mahdi Sagheb, Alireza Hamidian Jahromi, Sanaz Shabani, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand, Raha Afshariani, "Impact of oral zinc therapy on the level of sex hormones in male patients on hemodialysis", Ren Fail . 2010 May;32(4):417-9. doi: 10.3109/08860221003706958.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20446777/
  • 46. Tahoora Shomali, Mahnaz Taherianfard, Maryam Dalvand, Fatemeh Namazi, "Effect of pharmacological doses of niacin on testicular structure and function in normal and diabetic rats", Andrologia . 2018 Dec;50(10):e13142. doi: 10.1111/and.13142. Epub 2018 Sep 6.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30191583/
  • 47. Gonzales G. F., Cordova A., Gonzales C., Chung A., Vega K., Villena A., "Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men.", Asian Journal of Andrology. 2001;3(4):301–303.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4411442/#B19
  • 48. Bogani P., Simonini F., Iriti M., et al., "Lepidium meyenii (Maca) does not exert direct androgenic activities.", Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006;104(3):415–417. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.09.028.. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4411442/#B27
  • 49. Gonzalez G. F., Córdova A., Vega K., Chung A., Villena A., Góñez C., "Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing propeties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men.", Journal of Endocrinology. 2003;176(1):163–168. doi: 10.1677/joe.0.1760163.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4411442/#B28
  • 50. Christina M. Dording , * Pamela J. Schettler, Elizabeth D. Dalton, Susannah R. Parkin, Rosemary S. W. Walker, Kara B. Fehling, Maurizio Fava, and David Mischoulon, "A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Maca Root as Treatment for Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Women", Journal List Evid Based Complement Alternat Med v.2015; 2015 PMC4411442. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4411442/
  • 51. Srikugan L., Sankaralingam A., McGowan B., "First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii) BMJ Case Reports.", 2011 doi: 10.1136/bcr.01.2011.3781.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4411442/#B26
  • 52. Olivia Remes,Carol Brayne,Rianne van der Linde,Louise Lafortune, "A systematic review of reviews on the prevalence of anxiety disorders in adult populations", Journal of Brain and Behavior, 05 June 2016. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/brb3.497
  • 53. Rohit Verma, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, and Chandra Shekhar Gupta, "Gender differences in stress response: Role of developmental and biological determinants", Journal List Ind Psychiatry J v.20(1); Jan-Jun 2011 PMC3425245. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3425245/
  • 54. Mohammad Hossein Mirjalili, Elisabeth Moyano, Mercedes Bonfill, Rosa M Cusido, Javier Palazón, "Steroidal lactones from Withania somnifera, an ancient plant for novel medicine", Molecules . 2009 Jul 3;14(7):2373-93.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19633611/
  • 55. R C Rosen, "Prevalence and risk factors of sexual dysfunction in men and women", Curr Psychiatry Rep . 2000 Jun;2(3):189-95. DOI: 10.1007/s11920-996-0006-2.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11122954/
  • 56. Swati Dongre, Deepak Langade, Sauvik Bhattacharyya, "Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Improving Sexual Function in Women: A Pilot Study", Biomed Res Int . 2015;2015:284154. doi: 10.1155/2015/284154.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26504795/
  • 57. UT NEWS, "Stress Hormone Blocks Testosterone’s Effects, Study Shows", Journal of Science and Technology. https://news.utexas.edu/2010/09/27/stress-hormone-blocks-testosterones-effects-study-shows/
  • 58. Rashad, N.M., Samir, G.M., "Prevalence, risks, and comorbidity of thyroid dysfunction: a cross-sectional epidemiological study", Egypt J Intern Med 31, 635–641 (2019). https://ejim.springeropen.com/articles/10.4103/ejim.ejim_22_19
  • 59. Cleveland Clinic, "Thyroid: What It Is, Function and Problems", Journal of Body Systems & Organs. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/body/23188-thyroid
  • 60. Sharma AK, Basu I, Singh S., "Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Subclinical Hypothyroid Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial", J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Mar;24(3):243-248. doi: 10.1089/acm.2017.0183. Epub 2017 Aug 22. PMID: 28829155.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28829155/
  • 61. Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S., "A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults", Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Jul;34(3):255-62. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.106022. PMID: 23439798; PMCID: PMC3573577.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23439798/
  • 62. Stephens MA, Wand G., "Stress and the HPA axis: role of glucocorticoids in alcohol dependence", Alcohol Res. 2012;34(4):468-83. PMID: 23584113; PMCID: PMC3860380.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3860380/
  • 63. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "1 in 3 adults don’t get enough sleep", CDC.gov. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2016/p0215-enough-sleep.html
  • 64. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Sleep and Sleep Disorders", CDC.gov. https://www.cdc.gov/sleep/data_statistics.html
  • 65. Krishnan V, Collop NA., "Gender differences in sleep disorders", Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2006 Nov;12(6):383-9. doi: 10.1097/01.mcp.0000245705.69440.6a. PMID: 17053485.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17053485/
  • 66. Danielle Pacheco, Ealena Callender, "Women and Sleep", Sleep Foundation. https://www.sleepfoundation.org/women-sleep
  • 67. Langade D, Thakare V, Kanchi S, Kelgane S., "Clinical evaluation of the pharmacological impact of ashwagandha root extract on sleep in healthy volunteers and insomnia patients: A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study", J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Jan 10;264:113276. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113276. Epub 2020 Aug 17. PMID: 32818573.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32818573/
  • 68. Abhijit Deshpande, Nushafreen Irani, Ratna Balkrishnan, Irin Rosanna Benny, "A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study to evaluate the effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract on sleep quality in healthy adults", Sleep Medicine, Volume 72, 2020, Pages 28-36, ISSN 1389-9457,. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1389945720301246
  • 69. Mahesh K. Kaushik, Sunil C. Kaul, Renu Wadhwa, Masashi Yanagisawa, Yoshihiro Urade, "Triethylene glycol, an active component of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) leaves, is responsible for sleep induction", plos.org DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0172508. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0172508#abstract0
  • 70. Auddy B, Hazra J, Mitra A, et al., "A standardized Withania Somnifera extract significantly reduces stress-related parameters in chronically stressed humans: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study", J Am Neutraceut Assoc 2008;11:50–6.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6750292/#R20
  • 71. Andrade C, Aswath A, Chaturvedi SK, et al., "A double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the anxiolytic efficacy ff an ethanolic extract of withania somnifera", Indian J Psychiatry 2000;42:295–301.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6750292/#R18
  • 72. Fries E, Dettenborn L, Kirschbaum C., "The cortisol awakening response (CAR): facts and future directions", Int J Psychophysiol. 2009 Apr;72(1):67-73. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.03.014. Epub 2008 Sep 30. PMID: 18854200.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18854200/
  • 73. Nicolas C. Nicolaides, Alexandros N. Vgontzas, Ilia Kritikou, George Chrousos Kenneth R Feingold, Bradley Anawalt, Alison Boyce, George Chrousos, Wouter W de Herder, Ketan Dhatariya, Kathleen Dungan, Jerome M Hershman, Johannes Hofland, Sanjay Kalra, Gregory Kaltsas, Christian Koch, Peter Kopp, Márta Korbonits, Christopher S Kovacs, Wendy Kuohung, Blandine Laferrère, Miles Levy, Elizabeth A McGee, Robert McLachlan, John E Morley, Maria New, Jonathan Purnell, Rakesh Sahay, Frederick Singer, Mark A Sperling, Constantine A Stratakis, Dace L Trence, Don P Wilson, "HPA Axis and Sleep", In: Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000. 2020 Nov 24. PMID: 25905298 Bookshelf ID: NBK279071. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25905298/
  • 74. Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Sairam K, Ghosal S., "Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: an experimental study", Phytomedicine. 2000 Dec;7(6):463-9. doi: 10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80030-6. PMID: 11194174.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11194174/
  • 75. Gopal S, Ajgaonkar A, Kanchi P, Kaundinya A, Thakare V, Chauhan S, Langade D., "Effect of an ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera) root extract on climacteric symptoms in women during perimenopause: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study", J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2021 Dec;47(12):4414-4425. doi: 10.1111/jog.15030. Epub 2021 Sep 22. PMID: 34553463.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34553463/
  • 76. Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S., "A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults.", Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Jul;34(3):255-62. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.106022. PMID: 23439798; PMCID: PMC3573577.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23439798/
  • 77. Khedgikar V, Kushwaha P, Gautam J, Verma A, Changkija B, Kumar A, Sharma S, Nagar GK, Singh D, Trivedi PK, Sangwan NS, Mishra PR, Trivedi R., "Withaferin A: a proteasomal inhibitor promotes healing after injury and exerts anabolic effect on osteoporotic bone", Cell Death Dis. 2013 Aug 22;4(8):e778. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2013.294. PMID: 23969857; PMCID: PMC3763455.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23969857/
  • 78. Sandi C., "Stress and cognition", Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci. 2013 May;4(3):245-261. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1222. Epub 2013 Jan 22. PMID: 26304203.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26304203/
  • 79. Killgore WD., "Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition", Prog Brain Res. 2010;185:105-29. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53702-7.00007-5. PMID: 21075236.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21075236/
  • 80. Ali SA, Begum T, Reza F., "Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Function", Malays J Med Sci. 2018 Jul;25(4):31-41. doi: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.4.3. Epub 2018 Aug 30. PMID: 30914845; PMCID: PMC6422548.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422548/
  • 81. Choudhary D, Bhattacharyya S, Bose S., "Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) Root Extract in Improving Memory and Cognitive Functions", J Diet Suppl. 2017 Nov 2;14(6):599-612. doi: 10.1080/19390211.2017.1284970. Epub 2017 Feb 21. PMID: 28471731.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28471731/
  • 82. Dar NJ, MuzamilAhmad., "Neurodegenerative diseases and Withania somnifera (L.): An update.", J Ethnopharmacol. 2020 Jun 28;256:112769. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.112769. Epub 2020 Mar 30. PMID: 32240781.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32240781/
  • 83. Bonilla DA, Moreno Y, Gho C, Petro JL, Odriozola-Martínez A, Kreider RB., "Effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on Physical Performance: Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis", J Funct Morphol Kinesiol. 2021 Feb 11;6(1):20. doi: 10.3390/jfmk6010020. PMID: 33670194; PMCID: PMC8006238.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006238/
  • 84. GRAHAM BINDER, "Researchers with the College of AGNR study nutrient-packed microgreens", College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, September 6, 2012. https://agnr.umd.edu/news/mighty-microgreens
  • 85. GAO, "While Levels in Clothing Generally Appear to Be Low, Allergic Contact Dermatitis Is a Health Issue for Some People", United States Government Accountability Office, Report to Congressional Committees, August 2010. https://www.gao.gov/assets/gao-10-875.pdf
  • 86. Dongre S, Langade D, Bhattacharyya S., "Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Improving Sexual Function in Women: A Pilot Study.", Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:284154. doi: 10.1155/2015/284154. Epub 2015 Oct 4. PMID: 26504795; PMCID: PMC4609357.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26504795/
  • 87. Chauhan, S, Srivastava, MK, Pathak, AK., "Effect of standardized root extract of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on well-being and sexual performance in adult males: a randomized controlled trial", Health Sci Rep. 2022; 5:e741. doi:10.1002/hsr2.741. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hsr2.741
  • 88. Langade D, Thakare V, Kanchi S, Kelgane S., "Clinical evaluation of the pharmacological impact of ashwagandha root extract on sleep in healthy volunteers and insomnia patients: A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study", J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Jan 10;264:113276. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113276. Epub 2020 Aug 17. PMID: 32818573.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32818573/
  • 89. Abhijit Deshpande, Nushafreen Irani, Ratna Balkrishnan, Irin Rosanna Benny,, "A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study to evaluate the effects of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract on sleep quality in healthy adults,", Sleep Medicine, Volume 72, 2020, Pages 28-36, ISSN 1389-9457, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2020.03.012.. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1389945720301246
  • 90. Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Sairam K, Ghosal S, "Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: an experimental study", Phytomedicine. 2000 Dec;7(6):463-9. doi: 10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80030-6. PMID: 11194174.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11194174/
  • 91. Rashad, N.M., Samir, G.M., "Prevalence, risks, and comorbidity of thyroid dysfunction: a cross-sectional epidemiological study", Egypt J Intern Med 31, 635–641 (2019). https://doi.org/10.4103/ejim.ejim_22_19. https://ejim.springeropen.com/articles/10.4103/ejim.ejim_22_19
  • 92. Durg S, Bavage S, Shivaram SB, "Withania somnifera (Indian ginseng) in diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of scientific evidence from experimental research to clinical application", Phytother Res. 2020 May;34(5):1041-1059. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6589. Epub 2020 Jan 23. PMID: 31975514.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31975514/
  • 93. ASRM, American Society for Reproductive Medicine, "In approximately 40 percent of infertile couples, the male partner is either the sole cause or a contributing cause of infertility", Reproductivefacts.org/resources/infographic-gallery. https://www.reproductivefacts.org/resources/infographic-gallery/images/in-approximately-40-percent-of-infertile-couples-the-male-partner-is-either-the-sole-cause-or-a-contributing-cause-of-infertility/
  • 94. Tiwari S, Gupta SK, Pathak AK, "A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera dunal.) root extract in improving cardiorespiratory endurance and recovery in healthy athletic adults", J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 May 23;272:113929. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.113929. Epub 2021 Feb 15. PMID: 33600918.. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33600918/
  • 95. Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S, "A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults", Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Jul;34(3):255-62. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.106022. PMID: 23439798; PMCID: PMC3573577. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23439798/
  • 96. Mirjalili MH, Moyano E, Bonfill M, Cusido RM, Palazón J, "Steroidal lactones from Withania somnifera, an ancient plant for novel medicine", Molecules. 2009 Jul 3;14(7):2373-93. doi: 10.3390/molecules14072373. PMID: 19633611; PMCID: PMC6255378. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19633611/
  • 97. Carnegie Mellon University, "Stress Contributes To Range Of Chronic Diseases, Review Shows", ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 October 2007. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071009164122.htm
  • 98. Bremner JD, "Does stress damage the brain?", Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Apr 1;45(7):797-805. doi: 10.1016/s0006-3223(99)00009-8. PMID: 10202566. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10202566/
  • 99. Kalmbach DA, Anderson JR, Drake CL, "The impact of stress on sleep: Pathogenic sleep reactivity as a vulnerability to insomnia and circadian disorders", J Sleep Res. 2018 Dec;27(6):e12710. doi: 10.1111/jsr.12710. Epub 2018 May 24. PMID: 29797753; PMCID: PMC7045300. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045300/
  • 100. National Institutes of Health, "Poor Sleep Linked With Higher Blood Sugar", newsinhealth.nih.gov/Health Capsule/ July 2022. https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/2020/07/poor-sleep-linked-higher-blood-sugar
  • 101. Winston D, Maimes S, "Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief", Rochester: Inner Traditions/Bear & Co. Vol. 48. Rochester: Inner Traditions/Bear & Co; 2007; p. 53. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6979308/#REF8
  • 102. Bhatnagar M, Sharma D, Salvi M, "Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera dunal.: A possible mechanism", Neurochem Res. 2009 Nov;34(11):1975-83. doi: 10.1007/s11064-009-9987-7. Epub 2009 May 15. PMID: 19444606. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19444606/
  • 103. Salve J, Pate S, Debnath K, Langade D, "Adaptogenic and Anxiolytic Effects of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Healthy Adults: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study", Cureus. 2019 Dec 25;11(12):e6466. doi: 10.7759/cureus.6466. PMID: 32021735; PMCID: PMC6979308. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6979308/
  • 104. Gopukumar, K.Thanawala, S. Somepalli, V. Rao Sathyanaryana, T. S. Thamatam, V.B. Chauhan, S., "Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha Root Extract on Cognitive Functions in Healthy, Stressed Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine/ Volume 2021/Article ID 8254344. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2021/8254344/
  • 105. Choudhary D, Bhattacharyya S, Bose S., "Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal) Root Extract in Improving Memory and Cognitive Functions", J Diet Suppl. 2017 Nov 2;14(6):599-612. doi: 10.1080/19390211.2017.1284970. Epub 2017 Feb 21. PMID: 28471731. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28471731/
  • 106. Dar NJ, MuzamilAhmad, "Neurodegenerative diseases and Withania somnifera (L.): An update", J Ethnopharmacol. 2020 Jun 28;256:112769. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.112769. Epub 2020 Mar 30. PMID: 32240781. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32240781/
  • 107. LULU XIE, HONGYI KANG, QIWU XU, MICHAEL J. CHEN, YONGHONG LIAO, MEENAKSHISUNDARAM THIYAGARAJAN, JOHN O’DONNELL, DANIEL J. CHRISTENSEN, CHARLES NICHOLSON, JEFFREY J. ILIFF, TAKAHIRO TAKANO, RASHID DEANE, AND MAIKEN NEDERGAARD, "Sleep Drives Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain", SCIENCE 18 Oct 2013 Vol 342, Issue 6156 pp. 373-377 DOI: 10.1126/science.1241224. https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.1241224
  • 108. Bhatnagar M, Sharma D, Salvi M, "Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera dunal.: A possible mechanism", Neurochem Res. 2009 Nov;34(11):1975-83. doi: 10.1007/s11064-009-9987-7. Epub 2009 May 15. PMID: 19444606. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19444606/
  • 109. Baker C, Kirby JB, O'Connor J, Lindsay KG, Hutchins A, Harris M, "The Perceived Impact of Ashwagandha on Stress, Sleep Quality, Energy, and Mental Clarity for College Students: Qualitative Analysis of a Double-Blind Randomized Control Trial", J Med Food. 2022 Aug 18. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2022.0042. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35984870. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35984870/
  • 110. Nayely Leyva-López, et al, "Essential Oils of Oregano: Biological Activity beyond Their Antimicrobial Properties", https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6152729/
  • 111. S. Santoya et al, "Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of compounds with antimicrobial activity from Origanum vulgare L.: determination of optimal extraction parameters", https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16496578/
  • 112. Snigdha Sacena et al, "Evaluation of Systemic Oxidative Stress in Patients with Premature Canities and Correlation of Severity of Hair Graying with the Degree of Redox Imbalance", https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32549695/
  • 113. Yunes Panahi et al, "Rosemary oil vs minoxidil 2% for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia: a randomized comparative trial", https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25842469/
  • 114. Stephen C Barker & Phillip M Altman, "An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocation" pediculicide", https://bmcdermatol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-5945-11-14
  • 115. C Hay et al, "Randomized trial of aromatherapy. Successful treatment for alopecia areata", https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9828867/