Propolis, or bee-glue, is a waxy substance produced from tree resin and sap collected by bees. The word propolis derives from the Greek pro, meaning “in front of”, and polis, meaning “community or city”. Combined with beeswax and salivary secretions, it is used as a cement-like sealant to repair and maintain beehives, and reduce the occurrence of microorganisms inside the hive to protect the bees from infections.Propolis is typically derived from alder, beech, birch, poplar, willow, and pine. Its makeup and color will vary based on the types of trees and flowers in an area, but most commonly it is dark brown. At and above room temperature Propolis is sticky, but it hardens and becomes brittle at lower temperatures. Propolis was used medicinally by ancient cultures, including the Greeks, Assyrians and Egyptians. Traditionally it was used topically to support a healthy inflammatory response.* Bees use propolis to embalm invaders in the hive that they are not able to remove from the hive, and historically humans have used it to embalm mummies.